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Agricultural commodity


It is believed that wheat, as it is known, originated from wild grasses that developed near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Asia) around 10,000 to 15,000 BC.


It is believed that wheat, as it is known, originated from wild grasses that developed near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Asia) around 10,000 to 15,000 BC.

In Brazil, the grain arrived in 1534 with Martin Afonso de Souza, and was initially cultivated in the Captaincy of São Vicente (São Paulo), then taken to the Northeast and planted in Pernambuco, Paraíba, Ceará, Pará, and later to Minas Gerais and Goiás. Only in 1737 was wheat introduced in Rio Grande do Sul.

At the beginning of the 19th century, after Brazil had reached its maximum production, wheat cultivation practically disappeared due to the appearance of rust and the lack of labor caused by the abolition of slavery. After the First World War, wheat cultivation reappeared in Brazil with the development of more rust-resistant seeds.

Currently, Brazilian production is concentrated in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, which are responsible for approximately 90% of national production. The consumption in Brazilian lands is approximately 10 million tons, with our main suppliers being Argentina, Canada, and the USA.

The volume of wheat produced in Brazil in the 2004/05 harvest was 5,845.9 thousand tons, representing a 2.9% reduction compared to the last estimate made in February/05, which was 6,021.6 thousand tons.

According to CONAB, for the 2005/06 national harvest, the first indications from the sector point to a production volume around 5,739.6 thousand tons, representing a 1.8% reduction compared to the previous harvest.

Botanically, wheat is classified according to its species and variety, and the quality criteria used to classify the different types of wheat will always be according to its final destination. That is, a wheat of a particular species and with varieties can be used for bread, pasta, or cookies.

Although the specifications of each wheat grain already determine the qualitative potential of this raw material, the conditions of the soil in which the seed will be cultivated and especially the climate during planting, cultivation, and harvesting can significantly alter the quality of the harvested wheat.

Cereal wheat belongs to the grass family. Within the Triticum genus, there are 14 species. However, only five are commercially cultivated. The most important species are Triticum aestivum, Triticum compactum, and Triticum durum.

Wheat of the Triticum aestivum genus – hexaploid, cultivated in winter and spring, represents about 90% of the world's cultivated wheat production. It represents all wheat cultivated in Brazil. It produces flours destined for baking, pies, cookies, and similar products.

Wheat of the Triticum compactum genus - "Wheat Club," represents the smallest portion of wheat cultivated in the United States, and very little of this species is cultivated in Canada.  Like T. aestivum, T. compactum is also a winter and spring crop. T. compactum varieties are soft and low in protein, suitable for the production of cookies and cakes.

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